FSB Alpha Group: Russia’s Elite A Team


    1.0 Introduction

    Alpha Group is a Russian special forces unit which is part of the Russian Federal Security Service’s (FSB) Special Purpose Center. It is one of Russia’s most well-equipped, combat-capable and secretive units. Naturally, this has led to the unit’s use in operations deemed of utmost importance to the Russian state.

    2.0 Motto, Emblem And Patches

    The FSB’s Alpha Group utilises unique mottos, emblems and patches to stand out from other Russian units. They include the following:

    2.1 Motto 

    The motto of the FSB Alpha Group is probably ‘To win and return!’ written as ‘Победить и вернуться!’ in Russian. However, some Russian sources also indicate its motto to be ‘Победить и выжить, чтобы победить вновь’. This translates to ‘To win and return, to win again’ in English. (source) (source)

    2.2 Emblem

    FSB Alpha Group’s emblem unit patch is unique but shares some similarities to other Russian internal security units. Like the FSO’s organisational emblem, the FSB Alpha Group emblem is a shield in front of a sword. These symbols were chosen to emphasise that FSB Alpha is a combat-capable internal security ground unit. 

    Additionally, the shield on Alpha Group’s emblem includes numerous striking details. At the centre of the shield, a golden A inside a golden wreath is visible. The A stands for ‘Alpha’ (Альфа in Russia). Both the ‘A’ and the wreath are on a red background. Moreover, the A has a double-headed crowned eagle just above it, symbolising the unit belonging to the Russian state. 

    The writing on a blue background in gold lettering on the shield says ‘Special Purpose Center’. It is worth noting that visually this appears as ‘Special Centre Purpose’ in order from left to right. However, the words on the shield are designed to be read as ‘Special Purpose Centre A’ when translated into English. 

    Emblem of the FSB Alpha Group (source)

    2.3 Patches

    FSB Alpha personnel are distinguishable by both their unit patches and other patches synonymous with the unit. 

    2.3.1 FSB Alpha Group Special Purpose Centre A Patches

    Unsurprisingly, the emblem mentioned above of the FSB Alpha Group is worn by its personnel as a patch. The patch comes in a tactical and non-tactical variant. Some patches are similar and inspired by Alpha’s emblem but are modified slightly. For instance, some variants of the patch just include the shield, sword and A but not other elements of the emblem.

    2.3.2 FSB Alpha Group ‘AntiTerror’ Patches

    FSB Alpha Group personnel can also frequently wear Alpha ‘AntiTerror’ patches. Though very similar to Alpha emblem patches, the words ‘AntiTerror’ are written on top of the patch in Russian. Like with the emblem patch, the ‘AntiTerror’ patches come in tactical and non-tactical variants. The former utilises a gold, white, blue, light blue and red colour scheme.

    Non-Tactical FSB Alpha Group Anti-Terror patch (source)

    2.3.3 FSB Alpha Back Patch

    Additionally, FSB Alpha distinguish itself from other Russian units through its back patches. Such a patch includes ‘FSB Alpha’ written in Russian with yellow lettering on a black background. However, Alpha personnel can often wear a similar patch with just ‘FSB’ written on its own instead. (source) (source)

    FSB Alpha operator pictured with his unit’s back patch

    2.3.4 Pagan ‘STD’ Morale Patches 

    A distinct patch containing Slavic runic lettering resembling the Latin letters ‘STD’ can be found on many FSB Alpha personnel. The runes likely translate to ‘Light Bearing Force’. The runes are written in yellow and can be found on a green or black background. (source) (source)

    Back picture of FSB Alpha operative with arrow pointing to patch on the back of his helmet
    Slavic rune patch worn on the back of an FSB Alpha operator’s patch (source)

    2.3.5 Other Patches Synonomous FSB Alpha

    • Russian flag patches – Russian flag patches are frequently worn by FSB Alpha personnel, though they are not the only unit to do so (source)
    • Z patches – Since Russia’s widened invasion of Ukraine, some FSB Alpha personnel (alongside other Russian units) wear pro-war Z patches (source)
    • Pagan Symbols – FSB Alpha personnel also wear Slavic pagan symbol patches. They are especially fond of Kolvrat patches. (source)

    3.0 Organisation

    FSB Alpha Group is a well-funded, highly selective and well-trained unit. This makes it one of the Russian state’s most elite forces utilised for missions of utmost importance to it. Moreover, its notorious earlier iteration, KGB Alpha, has given the unit a distinct history and culture.

    3.1 History of FSB Alpha Group

    Alpha Group has a historically significant role as part of the KGB and as part of the FSB. The extensive changes the unit has undergone over its existence have made it stand out from other Russian units.

    3.1.1 Origins of KGB Alpha

    FSB Alpha is a successor unit to the Soviet Union’s notorious KGB Alpha Group. 

    KGB Alpha was formed on 4 July 1974 by Yuri Andripov, the chairman of the KGB at the time. Andripov likely ordered the head of the Seventh Directorate of the KGB of the USSR, Mikhail Milyutin, to set up Alpha as an elite counter-terrorism unit. (source) (source)

    Initially, KGB Alpha only consisted of 30 individuals. Alongside being some of the most combat-proficient personnel in the KGB, these individuals were also highly educated. The unit’s initial function involved preventing aircraft hijackings. However, over time, the unit’s functions expanded to involve other counter-terrorism functions. (source) (source)

    Over time, the resources and diversity of training grew for KGB Alpha. The unit’s training expanded to preparing its personnel for site security, skydiving, mine-clearing and even psychological training. Moreover, its personnel began training outside Russia, like in the Baltics and even Cuba. By 1990, the size of the unit grew to around 500 personnel. (source

    After the collapse of the USSR, KGB Alpha was placed under the control of the newly formed FSB. In 1995, KGB Alpha was transferred to the ‘A’ Department of the FSB. The unit was able to transfer its extensive operational experience to the new organisation, contributing significantly to what the FSB Alpha Group is today. (source)

    KGB Alpha in Afghanistan pictured during 1980s
    KGB Alpha Group personnel in Afghanistan during the 1980s (source)

    3.1.2 Notable KGB Alpha Operations

    KGB Alpha participated in multiple noteworthy operations during its existence. These include the following:

    • The capture of the Afghan Tabjeg Palace in December 1979 – This operation involved KGB Alpha personnel storming the palace in which Afghan leader Hafizullah Amin resided. Whilst the operation was successful and led to the assassination of Amin, 5 Alpha personnel died conducting it. The operation served as the beginning of the Soviet-Afghan war. (source) (source)
    • Executive protection and site security during the Olympic Games in 1980 – FSB Alpha was one of many Russian units responsible for providing security during Russia’s Olympic Games in 1980. As well as ensuring the safety of crowds and securing facilities, the unit also protected individuals such as Yasser Arafat. (source)
    • Tbilisi-Leningrad flight hostage rescue in November 1983 – This operation involved FSB Alpha successfully terminating a flight hijacking in Batumi, Georgia by at least 7 Georgian individuals. 8 hostages died during the hostage rescue operation and the hijackers were tried and executed shortly after. (source) (source)
    • The arrest of CIA agent Adolph Tolkachev in 1985 – In 1995, FSB Alpha successfully arrested a CIA agent passing information to the US on the construction of the USSR’s “friend-foe” identification system. After extensive surveying of Tolkachev and counter-intelligence work, KGB Alpha personnel managed to eventually arrest him.   (source)
    • Storming of the Russian Parliament during the 1991 coup – Numerous KGB Alpha Group personnel stormed the Russian parliament as part of a coup attempt against President Mikhail Gorbachev. However, 20 KGB Alpha personnel refused to participate in the operation to kill or capture Boris Yeltsin. This hesitation from the 20 personnel contributed to the coup’s eventual failure. (source) (source)
    KGB Alpha agents arresting CIA agent Tolkachev and hauling him into a van
    KGB Alpha operatives carrying Tolkachev into a van after his arrest (source)

    3.1.3 Alpha Group Post-USSR Collapse

    After the collapse of the USSR, Alpha Group was briefly part of the Federal Protective Service’s (FSO) predecessor organisation the Main Administration for the Protection of the Russian Federation from 1991-1993. Shortly after, the Russian Federal Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) also had control of the unit from 1993-1995. (source) (source)

    Throughout 1991-1995, Alpha Group participated in numerous operations that shaped its eventual role as an FSB unit. This included participation in the storming of the Russian parliament in 1993, the First Chechen War between 1994-1996 and eliminating armed terrorist hijacker Viktor Surgai in 1995.  (source) (source)

    Additionally, 3 years after being transferred to the FSB in 1995, Alpha Group became part of the FSB’s Special Purpose Centre in 1998. The organisation integrated Alpha Group into its ranks alongside its sister unit Vympel. Like other units within the FSB, Alpha is highly loyal to President Putin, who himself is a former KGB officer.  (source) (source)

    Throughout its existence within the FSB, Alpha Group has become increasingly better equipped and well-funded. This enabled it to become one of Russia’s premier Special Forces (SOF) units alongside FSB Vympel, Zaslon and Russia’s Special Forces Command (KSSO) units.

    FSB Alpha personnel on a firing range training
       FSB Alpha personnel training at a firing range (source)

    3.2 Place Within The Russian Security Nexus

    Alpha Group falls under the control of the FSB, Russia’s premier internal security and counter-intelligence agency. Despite being classified as such by the Russian government, the FSB and its units have also operated outside of Russia. As such, this has led to Alpha deploying in Syria, as well as potentially in Ukraine. (source) (source) (source)

    3.3 Relation To Other Russian Units

    FSB Alpha is under the command of the FSB Special Purpose Centre (SPC) alongside Vympel. Alpha is generally used in a less expeditionary manner than Vympel, but both have been seen operating outside of Russia. Alpha’s internal security focus means that it has frequently operated with FSO, Rosgvardia and other law enforcement elements. (source) (source)

    3.4 Recruitment

    Given the elite nature of the unit, FSB Alpha is highly selective in the personnel it allows into its ranks. This also means that those within it are paid generously compared to other Russian units and have significant funds allocated to their training. 

    Likely FSB Alpha personnel in a transport vehicle
    FSB Alpha personnel in a transport vehicle (source)

    3.4.1 Methods Of Recruiting 

    FSB Alpha’s notoriety means that many individuals within Russia actively try to enlist in its ranks. This means that the FSB is unlikely to struggle to find those eager to become Alpha operators. Despite this, the FSB’s SPC still engages in a proactive strategy of recruiting prospective candidates for the unit. (source)

    According to some open-source information, the FSB’s SPC actively searches for individuals deemed suited to serve within FSB Alpha. SPC recruiters do this by scouting young prospective recruits within the Russian Defence Ministry’s (MoD) military institutes. (source) (source)

    Some believe that the Novosibirsk Higher Combined Arms School and Moscow Higher Military Command are significant sources for recruiting this type of SPC. Additionally, SPC recruiters probably visit such institutes to study the personnel files of cadets to identify which may be worth recruiting. SPC recruiters are also likely to interview them too. (source) (source)

    Aside from recruiting in this manner, the SPC also accepts those who are already officers and warrant officers. Some estimates suggest that 97% of all FSB special forces personnel are officers or cadets seeking to become officers. It is unclear if they prefer to recruit officers from the MoD. (source)(source

    3.4.2 Requirements To Serve Within FSB Alpha 

    Given the elite nature of FSB Alpha, details about the requirements to join it are difficult to obtain. Publicly available information gives some insights into the requirements which include the following: 

    • Being a Russian citizen
    • Being 175cm or taller
    • Being no older than 28 years old
    • High level of physical fitness
    • Passing selection training
    • Passing polygraphs and psychological evaluation
    • Being an officer within the MoD or training to become one within a military institute (source) (source) (source)

    The following also increase your likelihood of getting into FSB Alpha:

    • Receiving a letter of recommendation from an FSB officer, especially from a member of Alpha or Vympel
    • Received education at a university level
    • Prior service in the Russian Armed Forces or an elite internal security unit
    FSB Alpha Group individual in PKM-3 Gas mask holding an MP5
    FSB Alpha member with a PKM-3 gas mask and Heckler & Koch MP5 with numerous attachments (source)

    3.4.3 Remuneration

    As with many other details concerning FSB Alpha, information on its remuneration is hard to obtain. Openly available information offers the following estimates of the amounts paid to their personnel:

    • Standard payment of 60,000 to 150,000 rubles (£500 to £1,250) per month 
    • A higher rate of pay at 200,000 rubles (£1,670) per month for Alpha (and Vympel) personnel deployed in dangerous locations like Syria 
    • Bonus payments for carrying out high-risk operations and tasks

    Variances in wages between FSB Alpha personnel are also dependent on rank within the unit. It is also probable that the wages of the unit grew by 30-50% from 2013 to 2018. (source) (source)

    The dangerous roles performed by FSB Alpha personnel naturally result in payouts in the event of injury or death. Estimates suggest they are the following:

    • 3,000,000 rubles (£25,000) paid out to the family of an FSB Alpha operative in the event of their death
    • 2,000,000 rubles (£16,680) paid out to FSB Alpha operatives in the event of being wounded or injured when carrying out operations.  (source) (source

    3.4.5 Other Benefits Of Service

    Alongside the high pay of FSB Alpha personnel, its personnel are also entitled to other benefits due to their service. These include:

    • Free public transport if needed for work
    • An allowance for personal transport
    • Free local hospital treatment for personnel and their family members
    • Preferential treatment during application to universities
    • Low-interest rate mortgages
    • Free annual vacation (including coverage of transport costs)
    FSB Alpha operator with a suppressed MP9 and full kit
    Kitted out Alpha operator with what is likely a suppressed Brügger & Thomet MP9 SMG (source)

    3.5 Training 

    FSB Alpha Group personnel undergo extensive training and maintain high standards of physical fitness. Though the extent of their training remains classified in nature, publicly accessible information identifies it involves some of the following:

    3.5.1 Selection Training

    Individuals who wish to serve within FSB Alpha Group need to possess the fitness to do some of the following:

    1. Be able to run 3 kilometres in 10 mins and 30 seconds
    1. After 5 mins rest, run 100 metres in 12.7 seconds
    1. Do 25 pull-ups consecutively
    1. Do 90 pushups consecutively
    1. Bench-press your weight 10 times
    1. 100 jumps from a sitting position whilst alternating legs
    1. 3-minute hand-to-hand combat sparring with an active service FSB Alpha operative or instructor. Recruits are not judged on success during sparring but on their will to fight, fitness and aversion to injury. Those who only stay on the defensive during hand-to-hand combat sparring sessions tend to fail. (source) (source)

    3.5.2 Training Upon Successful Selection

    Training for those who successfully get into FSB Alpha is extensive and continuous. Aside from being necessary for operational success, completion of various specialist training courses is also rewarded with bonus pay. (source) (source

    Training videos and other open source information suggest FSB Alpha personnel develop knowledge of:

    • Conducting hostage rescue missions in all situations – This includes rescuing hostages in hijacked planes, buildings, trains, buses and boats.
    • Working with explosives – This includes being able to disarm, make entries and utilise them in other contexts.
    • Combat-diving – FSB Alpha personnel are trained to dive and swim in a tactical capacity. This allows them to board vessels and carry out other roles. Likely, some FSB Alpha personnel are also trained to use Diver Propulsion Vehicles (DPVs). (source)
    • Utilising unmanned systems – The high budget and diverse task set enable FSB Alpha units to use various unmanned systems during missions. As such, some of their personnel are trained in how to use UGVs and UAVs during operations. 
    • Close Quarters Combat (CQB) – The nature of FSB Alpha’s missions means it is essential for their personnel to be proficient in CQB. Extensive training is provided in clearing rooms, making entry and eliminating hostage-takers.
    • Marksmanship – The ability to utilise sniper rifles effectively in high-stress environments is essential for individuals within such sniper teams. Therefore, they are likely trained in marksmanship to use them to maximum effect.
    • Sky-diving – FSB Alpha personnel are also taught how to sky-dive. Being able to do so allows FSB Alpha more options in how they complete their missions.
    Video of FSB Alpha personnel training

    4.0 Equipment

    Being one of Russia’s most elite personnel, FSB Alpha operators are exceptionally well equipped. Whilst much of their current equipment may be unknown, their expensive and advanced arsenal is known to include some of the following: 

    4.1 Weapons 

    • AK-105 Assault Rifles (ARs) often with Norinco furnitures and suppressors 
    • AK-74M ARs often with Norinco furnitures + suppressors 
    • AK-104 ARs often with Norinco furnitures + suppressors 
    • Bullpup AK-74 ARs
    • Bushmaster M4A3 Carbine ARs
    • AS-Val ARs
    • Brügger & Thomet MP9 Submachine Guns (SMGs)
    • Heckler & Koch MP5 SMGs
    • Vityaz-SN SMGs
    • SR-2 Veresk SMGs
    • Bullpup & Standard PKP Pecheneg light machine guns (LMGs)
    • PKM LMGs
    • Glock 17&19 pistols
    • Strizh pistols
    • H&K MR308 sniper rifles
    • Accuracy International AXMC sniper rifles 
    • VSS Vintorez sniper rifles
    • AGS-17 grenade launchers
    • GM-94 grenade launchers
    • Fagot ATGM systems
    FSB Alpha individual holding a MP9 SMG
    FSB Alpha individual with a Brügger & Thomet MP9 SMG (source)

    4.2 Optics And Lasers

    • EOTech micro sights
    • Aimpoint micro sights
    • EOTech EXPS2 and EXPS3 sights
    • Schmidt & Bender 5-25×56 PM II/LP sniper scopes
    • Various NightForce sniper scopes
    • Legat thermal scopes
    • Infratech IT-315 TN thermal clips
    • Armasight Drakos laser aiming modules
    • SOT Aspid laser aiming modules
    • Zenit Perst-3 laser aiming modules
    • AN/PEQ-15 laser aiming modules
    FSB Alpha personnel in kit wearing gas masks potentially getting ready to breach during a training exercise
    FSB Alpha personnel during training (source)

    4.3 Vehicles

    • Zala unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)
    • DJI Mavic COTS UAVs
    • Falcatus Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected vehicles (MRAPs)
    • Viking MRAPs
    • Armoured SUVs
    • Civilian vehicles
    • BTR-80A armoured personnel carriers (APCs)
    • TML MMP30 EOD unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs)
    • MI-8 Helicopters

    Whilst finding such information is hard visually, it is also likely that the FSB Alpha Group has access to the following equipment if needed:

    • Artillery
    • Boats
    • Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) such as T-80s and T-90s
    • IL-76 transport planes and other transport planes
    FSB Alpha Group personnel walking in formation behind a kevlar shield whilst next to a Falcatus MRAP
    FSB Alpha personnel alongside a Falcatus MRAP (source)

    4.3 Armor And Kit

    • Vant-VM kevlar shields
    • Spartanets 2 and 3 helmets
    • Ops-Core Fast helmets
    • LSzh + 1 and 2 helmets
    • Peltor ComTac XPI headsets 
    • 3M Peltor ComTac headsets
    • Gear Craft BPS Atom plate carriers
    • ANA M1 & M2 plate carriers
    • FORT Defender II plate carriers
    • Crye Precision Tactical G3 Combat Pants
    • Crye Precision G2 Combat Pants
    • Various Helikon-Tex tactical gear
    • Various UF PRO tactical gear
    • Oakley combat gloves
    • AN/PSQ-20 Enhanced Night Vision Goggles (ENVGs)
    • DS-15 DEDAL-NV Gen 3+ bino NVGs
    • Safran Vectronix MOSKITO TI target locators
    • Surefire M720V weapon lights
    FSB Alpha individual during training at a firing range

    5.0 Operational Information

    FSB Alpha Group’s status as a highly proficient unit has been earned by its involvement in numerous notable operations. Its ability to carry them out successfully is a byproduct of the various roles it is capable of undertaking as an elite unit. 

    5.1 Notable Operations

    FSB Alpha Group has participated in some of Russia’s most well-known counter-terrorism operations. Whilst the unit is not known to have failed often in notable operations, its no-bars-held approach has created controversy. The following are some of FSB Alpha’s most known and well-documented operations.

    5.1.1 Moscow Theater Hostage Crisis (2002)  

    One of FSB Alpha’s most well-covered operations was its involvement in responding to the Moscow Theater Hostage Crisis in 2002. FSB Alpha worked alongside Vympel and SOBR units to eventually release many of the hostages taken by Chechen militant personnel. However, the operation also ended with the death of at least 170 people (40 insurgents and 130 hostages). (source)

    The international community negatively covered the Russian state’s response due to the chemical agent used during the operation. The chemical agent killed not only many of the insurgents but also the hostages. Amongst those hostages were 9 foreign nationals. A study by the Journal of Analytical Toxicology claims the chemical agent contained carfentanil and remifentanil. (source) (source) (source)

    5.1.2 Beslan School Siege (2004)

    From September 1-3, FSB Alpha personnel worked alongside Vympel to rescue hostages taken by Chechen militants in Beslan School. Militants were believed to have taken 1,128 hostages, including children, parents, and school staff.It is believed that 333 people died during the siege, with 186 of them being children and 31 of them being hostage takers. (source) (source) (source)

    During the operation, 10 FSB SPC personnel were killed by an IED that exploded during the operation. 3 of them were from FSB Alpha whilst the remainder were from Vympel. Some reports suggest that witnesses saw excessive levels of force and heavy weaponry used during the operation. This led to controversy around the operation in Russia and abroad. (source) (source) (source

    In 2004, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Russia failed to protect the hostages during the siege. The use of tank cannons, flamethrowers, and grenade launchers by FSB SPC units during the operation partially contributed to the verdict. The Russian state declared the ruling as “utterly unacceptable” at the time. (source) (source) (source

    5.1.3 Elimination of the leader of Ichkeria Aslan Maskhadov (2005)

    FSB Alpha also took part in the elimination of Ichkerian leader Aslan Mashkhadov in 2005. Mashkhadov was the third president of the Republic of Ichkeria and a prominent commander during the First Chechen War. FSB Alpha personnel formed part of an operational combat group that successfully attacked his location in Tolstoy-Yurt village. (source) (source)

    Some reporting suggests that the FSB may have paid $10 million to informers responsible for helping them track down Mashkhadov. The Russian state also claimed the operation was conducted in response to terrorist attacks abetted by Mashkhadov and that the plan was to capture Mashkhadov until he was accidentally killed by a grenade instead. (source) (source) (source)

    5.2 Core Roles

    • Counter-terrorism (CT)
    • Law enforcement
    • Anti-sabotage 
    • Counter-intelligence 
    • Intelligence-gathering
    • Conducting special operations
    • Hostage rescue
    • Deploying sniper and counter-sniper teams
    • Conventional combat operations

    5.4 Personnel Size

    The exact amount of personnel in the FSB Alpha Group currently is classified in nature. However, existing estimates put the combined total of personnel within FSB Alpha and Vympel at 300 to 500 personnel. (source)

    6.0 The Future For FSB Alpha Group

    Judging the future of the FSB Alpha Group is challenging given the limited information that exists on what it is currently doing. However, some judgements can be made based on existing information about the unit and Russia’s current geopolitical outlook. 

    The FSB has combatted Ukrainian and pro-Ukrainian infiltration groups within Russia and will likely continue to do so. When it has combatted such groups, it is probable that FSB Alpha was utilised to do so. A continuing pattern of raids being conducted inside Russia by Ukrainian and pro-Ukrainian groups may be formative to Alpha’s role in the near future. (source) (source) (source)

    Wagner’s mutiny may have also increased the attention paid to Russian internal security and shaped FSB Alpha’s near future role. The rearming of the Rosgvardia and legalisation of Russian regional PMCs has already shown increased interest from the Russian state in preventing future mutinies. The authorities may task FSB Alpha with preparing to combat such a threat as well. (source)

    7.0 Conclusion

    FSB Alpha Group is one of Russia’s most elite special forces units. It plays a central role in conducting operations deemed of vital importance, many of which are classified in nature. In part, this is due to the high level of training, its advanced capabilities and strict recruitment standards.

    Though Russia’s future is uncertain, it is highly likely the unit will continue playing a central role in its security. The unit’s demonstrated experience in conducting operations abroad and domestically makes it well-suited for countering internal and foreign threats to the Russian state. This means Alpha will remain an important component of Russian security and intelligence.

    Alec Bertina
    Alec Bertina
    Alec is a researcher on Russian non-traditional security actors, with a focus on Russian PMCs. He has also done analysis on the Russian invasion of Ukraine since 2022. Alec has a BA Politics & International Relations and an MA in International Security from the University of East Anglia.

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