The Central African Republic (CAR) is deeply unstable. After a 2013 rebellion unseated the country’s president, the international community launched a peacekeeping mission and oversaw a transition to democratic governance. However, despite military victories and elections in 2016 and 2020, insecurity in CAR remains endemic. Ongoing fighting with rebels increases civilian displacement and the need for humanitarian aid. Amid a precarious security environment, CAR’s leadership is progressively aligning with Russia and weakening the country’s democratic institutions. The role of Russian PMCs remains central to both processes.